Install bushing

Bushes mounting with liquid nitrogen

How to Install a Bushing: Video Tutorial

Bush replacement is a crucial step in maintaining the proper functioning of earth-moving machines, such as excavators, backhoes, drills, and lifters. There are various methods for installing a bush, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. Let’s examine the most common methods.

Bushing press fit: Hydraulic Press  

This method uses the force of a hydraulic press to insert the bush into its seat. It’s crucial that the press is correctly aligned with the bush and seat. Misalignment can cause damage to the bush or the seat. Moreover, the applied pressure must be adequate for the task. Excessive pressure can cause ovalization and deformation, while insufficient pressure might not allow for correct installation.

Bushing press fit with hydralic press

Mounting Bushings Without a Press: The Liquid Nitrogen Method

The liquid nitrogen assembly method takes advantage of thermal contraction. The bush is cooled with liquid nitrogen, causing it to shrink. Once cooled, the bush is inserted into its seat. As the bush warms up, it expands, ensuring a perfect fit. It’s important to remember that liquid nitrogen must be handled with care and can cause severe cold burns if it comes into contact with the skin. Therefore, it’s essential to wear gloves and protective glasses when handling this liquid. Also, once the bush has been cooled, it should be installed as quickly as possible. If the bush is allowed to warm up before installation, it may not fit properly. Finally, after installation, the bush should be left to warm up evenly at room temperature.

Bushing press fit: Hammer

Although this is the simplest method, it’s also the least recommended, in fact, we strongly advise against it. Using a hammer to install the bush can easily lead to deformations of both the bush and the seat. This method should be avoided if possible, as it’s imprecise and overly approximate.

Best Mining Expos

Best mining equipment trade show

Let’s explore a concise overview of some of the top mining exhibitions and conferences worldwide. These events serve as crucial platforms for industry professionals, showcasing cuttingedge machinery, equipment, and technologies related to electronic control devices, robotics, and more.


Place: Indonesia
Dates: 11-14 September 2024
Cycle: Annually

Description: Now in its 22nd edition, Mining Indonesia is one of the most important Asian trade fairs for the mining industry, serving as a crucial platform for the commercial operations of Southeast Asia’s mining industry.


Place: USA
Dates: 24-26 September
Cycle: Annually

Description: Minexpo is one of the many trade shows held in Las Vegas, a fair with thousands of exhibitors and tens of thousands of participants. It’s a crucial stop for those looking to do business in the mining sector, and a great opportunity to discover the latest innovations in drilling and excavation. It’s a very diverse expo, ranging from logistics to components, to software services, and not lacking in conferences and shows.


Place: Australia
Dates:Coming soon
Cycle: Annually

Description: For those working in the mining industry, a visit to Australia is a must. This nation has built much of its economy on the extraction and export of raw materials. AIMEX is an annual event that successfully combines a trade show and conference on the subject, making it a top-tier meeting place.  The dates for 2025 are still to be determined, we will keep you updated.


Place: Australia
Dates: 21-22 May 2025
Cycle: Biennially

Description: Austmine, taking place over three days in May 2025, is heavily focused on conferences and meetings. Here, you can discover all the latest news regarding machine learning, artificial intelligence, environmental consciousness, and also innovations related to electric vehicles and electrical equipment.


Place: Australia
Dates: 23 – 25 July 2024
Cycle: Annually

Description: The Queensland Mining & Engineering Exhibition (QME) has been a significant event in Mackay for over three decades. It showcases the mining industry’s innovation and excellence, drawing over 5,000 visitors across three days. With more than 300 suppliers, live demonstrations, and a free seminar series, QME provides valuable networking opportunities for industry professionals. The event will take place from July 23 to July 25, 2024, at the Mackay Showgrounds.


Place: Sweden
Dates: 26-28 May 2026
Cycle: Biennaly

Description: Euro Mine Expo is a leading mining trade show and conference that takes place every other year in Skellefteå, Sweden. It serves as an international platform for professionals in the mining industry to meet, exchange ideas, and showcase the latest technologies and innovations in mining. The expo attracts participants from around the globe, making it a key event for idea sharing and collaboration within the mining community.

In addition to being a comprehensive trade fair, Euro Mine Expo also hosts the Euro Mine Tech Talks, a conference of exceptional caliber.


Place: Kazakhstan
Dates: 17-19 September 2024
Exhibitor List:
Cycle: Variable

Description: The Mining & Metals Central Asia is a significant exhibition for the mining and metallurgical industry in Central Asia. Held annually, it brings together hundreds of participating companies and thousands of visitors, including manufacturers, equipment suppliers, mining and metallurgical holdings’ representatives and academia.


Place: Australia
Dates: 29-31 October 2024
Cycle: Biennaly
Exhibitor List:


The International Mining and Resources Conference (IMARC) is a premier event where influential figures from the mining industry converge. It serves as a platform for sharing ideas, inspiration, and networking among industry leaders.

At IMARC, you can learn from over 600 mining leaders and resource experts across seven concurrent conferences, covering the entire mining value chain. Additionally, there’s a 20,000m² expo show floor featuring 500+ leading companies.

Top forestery Exhibitions

Top Forestery Trade Show

The best forestry trade shows of 2024/2025. To see the latest in machinery and equipment for those working in the forestry sector, we have compiled here the top 10 exhibitions.

LAS-EXPO 2024 | Targi Kielce

Place: Poland
Dates: 8-10 March 2024
Cycle: Annually

Description: Las Expo is a Timber Industry & Forest Resources Management Fair. It is visited by almost 71,000 people and offers an exhibition of specialized vehicles and different woodworking machines. The exhibiting companies also focus on the safety of work, which is fundamental for the forestry sector.

SKOGS NOLIA 2024 | Vännäs

Place: Sweden
Dates: June 2024
Cycle: Annually

Description: Skogs Nolia is the Northern Sweden’s most important Forest Fair. Skogs Nolia has approximately 200 exhibitors and around 13,000 visitors. It let people with a profession or interest in the forest to meet and collaborate with each other.

LOAD UP NORTH 2024 | Boden

Place: Sweden
Dates: 29-31 August 2024
Cycle: Annually

Description: Load up north is an International fair for construction machinery, road construction, transport and recruitment, as well as soil and forestry, but also service and aftermarket. Here you can find the industry’s most influential and innovative actors, with whose you can meet, accord and work.

FORLENER 2025 | Erba

Place: Italy
Dates: May 2025
Cycle: Biennially

Description: Forlener since 2001 is the leading biennial trade fair focused in the forest, wood and energy, including all its products and services, like forest management, machinery, boilers, stoves and chimneys and technologies for the production of pellets.


Place: Germany
Dates: 12-18 April 2024
Cycle: Annually

Description: Forst live is the leading Trade fair for Forestry and forestry technology, renewable energies and hunting. It hosts more than 340 exhibitors on 46.000 sq. area with more than 33.000 visitors. Visitors are able to obtain practical information and advice on further developments and innovations at machine demonstrations and in specialist forums.


ELMIA WOOD 2025 | Jönköping

Place: Sweden
Dates: 04-07 June 2025
Cycle: Every four years

Description: Elmia Wood is an International Forestry Trade Fair. Last edition hosted 270 exhibitors with a wide range of products, services and smart solutions. Elmia Wood have welcomed almost 26.000 visitors from different countries.

INTERMOB 2024 | Istanbul

Place: Turkey
Dates: 12-15 September 2024
Cycle: Annually

Description: As the foremost furniture side industry trade fair in Eurasia, Intermob is gearing up to gauge the industry’s current state in 2024. With a focus on uniting the ideal buyers and sellers, Intermob Fair provides a global business arena where domestic and international visitors, along with all industry stakeholders, convene to network and collaborate.

FOREXPO 2025 | Mimizan

Place: France
Dates: 18-20 June 2025
Cycle: Every four years

Description: Since its inception in 1962, FOREXPO has become the pivotal hub for the European forestry sector. Through exhibitions, demonstrations, and workshops, FOREXPO provides a comprehensive overview of the offerings within the forest-wood industry, encapsulating the entire lifecycle of a forest stand “from seeds to logs” over three days.

MAXPO 2025 | Hyvinkää

Place: Finland
Dates: 28-30 August 2024
Cycle: Biennially

Description: The exhibition takes place at Hyvinkää Airfield, providing ample space for the machines to be displayed in a natural setting. Visitor services, including restaurants and entertainment options, ensure that your visit to Maxpo is both enjoyable and beneficial.

FOIRE DE LIBRAMONT 2024 | Libramont-Chevigny

Place: Belgium
Dates: 26-29 July 2024
Cycle: Annually

Description: The Libramont agriculture, forestry, and agribusiness Fair stands as Europe’s premier open-air event of its kind. Drawing close to 200,000 visitors annually, it hosts 700 exhibitors showcasing 4,000 brands across a sprawling 200,000 m² venue. Occurring annually on the final weekend of July, Libramont is complemented by Demo Forest every other year and the International Grassland Day every four years.

10 Biggest Excavators

Komatsu Pc 7000- 11

Welcome to the top 10 ranking of the biggest excavators on the market, ordered by bucket capacity and updated for 2024. This is our ranking, so we’ve put a lot of heart into selecting these machines. If you have any suggestions, feel free to write to us.


The Caterpillar 6090FS is a powerful and reliable mining machine designed to operate under challenging conditions. It’s not surprising to see Caterpillar on this list, as the American company has become synonymous with power and enormity. With a bucket capacity of up to 50 cubic meters, this mining giant can dig large amounts of material in a short time. It’s equipped with a Caterpillar C27 ACERT engine that delivers up to 1919 horsepower, offering exceptional performance even under the most demanding conditions.


Tank capacity 16390 l
Height 9.99 m
Width 9.72 m
Length 13.53 m
Engine power 3356 kw
Bucket capacity 52 cubic m
Weight 1000 t

2) TEREX – RH400

The Terex RH400 is renowned for its power and versatility. With an operating weight of over 900 tons and a load capacity of up to 85 cubic meters, it’s a widely used machine in open-pit mines. Equipped with a diesel engine of over 4000 horsepower, it can dig large amounts of material with precision.


Tank capacity 16000 l
Height 9.99 m
Width 9.07 m
Length 13.54 m
Engine power 3360 kw
Bucket capacity 50 m cubed
Weight 980 t

3) LIEBHERR – R9800

Liebherr – R9800: The Liebherr R9800 represents the pinnacle of engineering in the category of mining machines. With an impressive power of over 4000 horsepower and an operating weight exceeding 800 tons, this giant is designed to tackle the most demanding jobs in open-pit mines.


Tank capacity 19690 l
Height 11.7 m
Width 10.5 m
Length 23.9 m
Engine power 2984 kw
Bucket capacity 42 cubic m
Weight 800 t

4) KOMATSU – PC 8000-11

With impressive power and a load capacity of up to 85 tons, the PC 8000-11 is designed for the most demanding digging operations. Its diesel engine offers exceptional power, while the advanced hydraulic system ensures precise control and optimal operating speed. It is worth mentioning that the PC 8000-11 is also the biggest Komatsu excavator available, further adding to its remarkable capabilities.


Tank capacity 13926 l
Height 9.653 m
Width 8.73 m
Length 14 m
Engine power 1500 kw
Bucket capacity 42 cubic m
Weight 760 t

5) KOMATSU – PC 8000-6

The Komatsu PC 8000-6 is a majestic machine intended for the mining industry and the excavation of large amounts of material. Equipped with a powerful and efficient diesel engine, it can achieve exceptional performance even under the most precarious conditions.


Tank capacity 13925 l
Height 9.655 m
Width 10.01 m
Length 14.078 m
Engine power 3000 kw
Bucket capacity 42 cubic m
Weight 777 t

6) LIEBHERR – R996 B

This machine ensures optimal performance even under the most demanding conditions. The R 996 B follows the Liebherr design philosophy of maximizing performance by improving the efficiency of all individual subsystems.


Tank capacity 13000 l
Height 9.07 m
Width 7.65 m
Length 22.6 m
Engine power 2240 kw
Bucket capacity 36 cubic m
Weight 672 t

7) KOMATSU – PC 7000-11 

The Komatsu PC7000-11 represents a pillar in excavation technology for modern mines. Equipped with advanced maintenance and productivity functions, this excavator offers a combination of power, reliability, and ease of use.


Tank capacity 514 l
Height 9.001 m
Width 9.62 m
Length 13.105 m
Engine power 2250 kw
Bucket capacity 36 m cubed
Weight 692 t

8) LIEBHERR – R9600G8 

Another Liebherr vehicle in this ranking, a company known for its giant excavators, with a unique design. The EVO bucket allows the operator to maximize efficiency during each pass, thus helping to increase overall productivity.


Tank capacity 14067 l
Height 9.98 m
Width 9.22 m
Length 21.95 m
Engine power 2500 kw
Bucket capacity 37.5 m cubed
Weight 645 t

9) CATERPILLAR – 6060 

This giant is designed to tackle demanding tasks with ease, offering a combination of power and precision. With these imposing dimensions, it can handle heavy work effectively and reliably.


Tank capacity 11870 m
Height 8.79 m
Width 8.73 m
Length 12.57 m
Engine power 2240 kw
Bucket capacity 34 cubic m
Weight 569 t

10) KOMATSU – PC 5500-6 

And finally, in position 10, we find the Komatsu PC 5500-6. This giant is designed to tackle demanding tasks with ease, offering a combination of power and precision. With its imposing dimensions, it can handle heavy work effectively and reliabl


Tank capacity 10355 l
Height 8.61 m
Width 7.9 m
Length 12.36 m
Engine power 1880 kw
Bucket capacity 29 m cubed
Weight 552 t


Lectura specs


Steel Bushings Production

Steel Bushings Production

Bushing manufacturers

We have been manufacturers of steel bushings for over 45 years. Our production is automated, utilizing cutting-edge technology with a keen attention to detail and precision. We can customize our bushings with specific treatments to meet your needs. Moreover, we assure 100% Made in Italy quality and pay the utmost attention to the treatment of raw materials.
We produced over a 1,6 milion bushings last year, a number that allowes us significant economies of scale.
We ship to the five continents, we assure quality and 100% made in Italy.

Contact us to have our total assistance, from the technical area to customer service to logistics. Our clients are long term partners: we work and grow together with them.

You can request our catalog here.

And you can find our contact information here.

Biggest mining machines in the world: Bagger 288

Bagger 288

The Bagger 288, crafted by the German company Krupp, stands as a colossal titan amidst bucket wheel excavators, emblematic of engineering prowess and industrial might. This huge machine, born in 1978 after a meticulous five-year design and manufacturing phase followed by another five years of assembly, commands attention with its height reaching 96 meters, a length spanning 225 meters, and a weight reaching 13,500 tons.
Notably, the value of this engineering marvel is estimated to be around 100 million dollars. 

With its extraordinary features and significant cost, the Bagger 288 is indeed the most expensive excavator in the world

Bagger 288 boasts an unparalleled capacity, capable of moving an astonishing 240,000 cubic meters of coal and overburden in a single day—an equivalent workload to that of 40,000 laborers or more than 10,000 dump truck loads. Its operation is driven by aoperator stationed within the cab, overseeing every movement of the behemoth with precision and safety ensured through comprehensive safety mechanisms.

In the heart of Germany’s Rhineland lies the Hambach open pit mine, the operational epicenter where Bagger 288 works. Here, the machine’s efficiency is showcased as it facilitates the extraction of approximately 40 million tons of coal annually. Meanwhile, the discarded overburden, amounting to around 250 million cubic meters per year, finds its resting place on the periphery of the worked-out sections of the mine.

Bagger 293

In 1995, TAKRAF constructed the Bagger 293, which is used in a lignite mine near Hambach in Germany, the same location as its sibling, the Bagger 288. The machine stands 96 meters tall, weighs 14,200 tons, and requires five people to operate. It can move 240,000 cubic meters or 218,880 tons of soil per day, matching the capacity of the Bagger 288.

Bagger 288 vs Bagger 293: Comparison

Below, you’ll find a schematic comparison.

Bagger 288

Type Bucket-wheel Excavator
Manufacturer ThyssenKrupp (Germany)
Year of Production 1978
Dimensions (L x W x H) 220 m x 46 m x 96 m
Dimensions in US units (L x W x H) 721 ft x 151 ft x 315 ft
Weight 13,500 tons
Weight in US units 29,800,000 lbs
Power Source 16.56 MW of externally supplied electricity
Blade Volume Capacity 6.6 m3
Blade Volume Capacity in US units 8.6 cubic yards
Blade Weight Capacity 6.5 t
Blade Weight Capacity in US units 14,330 lbs

Bagger 293

Type Bucket-wheel Excavator
Manufacturer TAKRAF
Year of Production 1995
Dimensions (L x W x H) 225 m x 46 m x 96 m
Dimensions in US units (L x W x H) 738.2 ft x 150.9 ft x 314.9 ft
Weight 14,200 tons
Weight in US units 31,300,000 lbs
Power Source 16.56 MW of external electricity
Blade Volume Capacity 15.0 m3
Blade Weight Capacity  15.0 t
Blade Volume Capacity in US units 19.6 cubic yards
Blade Weight Capacity in US units 33,069.3 lbs

Pop Culture

The Bagger 288, with its cyberpunk appearance, fits perfectly into dystopian or evocative settings and has been featured in movies and songs.


In The Hunger Games: Catching Fire, observant viewers can spot the Bagger 288 in the background of District 12.

Additionally, in Ghost Rider: Spirit of Vengeance (2012), the rider takes control of a Bagger 288, transforming it into a fiery instrument of destruction against adversaries.


It has been immortalized in a song by British comedian Joel Veitch as a guardian against apocalyptic threats, juxtaposed with footage from a German TV documentary chronicling the saga of bucket wheel excavators in the Ruhr area.

Similar machines are also the set of famous music festivals, like the one in Ferropolis, where you can see and touch 6 of the biggest machines in the world.

If you need steel bushings for your machinery, request our catalog here.

Definition of Spare Parts

The term spare in English has its roots in Old English “spær,” which means “sparing, scant.” This Old English term, in turn, is derived from the Proto-Germanic sparaz.
Spare parts are components or pieces of a device, machinery, or vehicle that can be replaced when failures or wear occur. These replacement parts are designed to be compatible with the original object and can be supplied by either the object’s manufacturer or specialized third parties in the production of spare components.

Spare Parts Classification: commercial uses

From a commercial perspective, spare parts can be classified into three types:


(Original Equipment Manufacturer): These are replacement parts that are produced by the same manufacturer that produced the original object. These parts are generally considered to be of high quality and perfectly compatible with the original object.

Alternative or Aftermarket Parts

These are replacement aftermarket parts that are often not produced by the original manufacturer of the vehicle or machine, but by a separate company. These parts can be used as economical substitutes for OEM parts.

Used or Second Hand Parts

These are oem parts or aftermarket parts that have been regenerated and resold at a lower price.
Additionally, there are original equipment parts that cannot be classified as spare parts, as they are installed as an original part of the machine and not as a replacement part.

Spare Parts Classification: Use and Position

Spare parts can also be classified based on their use and position. These classifications can vary depending on the context and terminology because, as we will see, the distinctions are subtle and sometimes the terms are used interchangeably.


These are parts that are designed to be consumed and replaced during the normal use of a device or a machine. These can include things like brake pads on a car, blades on a saw, or the bucket teeth of an excavator.

Service Parts

As the word itself suggests, these are parts that are replaced during a service or scheduled maintenance. These are not specifically built to be consumed and replaced but are when they reach the end of their life. These can include things like oil filters or transmission belts.

Interchangeable Parts

These are parts that can be replaced by another identical part. These parts are designed and manufactured to be exactly the same, so they can be swapped without altering the performance of the device or machine. Examples of this include screws and bolts, this concept is fundamental for mass production and industrial efficiency.
The most generic definition would be service parts. As the word itself suggests, it falls into the service, so in the parts changed during the service phase.

Spare Items and Spare Components

Spare items is a general term, while spare components refer to specific parts designed for a system. They are crucial for maintaining operational efficiency and longevity of a system. The quality can vary based on whether they are OEM, aftermarket, or used parts.

Bearings, pins and bushings

Bushings and bearings would fall into the category of spare parts and could be considered both as wear parts and service parts, depending on the context. They are essential components that allow the fluid movement of other mechanical parts and can be replaced when wear or failures occur. Furthermore, since bushings can be manufactured to be exactly the same as each other, they can also be considered as interchangeable parts. However, the specific classification can vary depending on the specific application and context.

Speaking of bushings, you can always request our steel bushings catalog for more information.

Spare Parts: The Movie

ts is also the title of a 2015 film directed by Sean McNamara, set in California. The film tells the story of a group of young people who find themselves participating in a robotics competition. Due to a lack of funds, they must seek to gather the necessary resources for the spare parts of their robot. In this context, the term spare parts takes on a deeper shade of meaning, tied to the concept of being replaceable and not feeling unique and special within society, much like a spare part.

defone spare parts

Differences Between Bushings, Bushes, and Bearings

boccole, bussole o bronzine

Bushings, bushes and bearings are often used interchangeably to refer to the same mechanical component: an element inserted between two parts to reduce friction during movement. However, it’s important to note that these terms, while similar, are used with subtle differences depending on the specific context and application

Bushings or Bushes terminology 

This is a general term, that refers to a cylindrical element between two parts to reduce friction during movement. The term originates from the Latin word “buxida”, meaning box.

In the context of mechanical engineering, the terminology can differ based on the variant of English being used. In American English, the term bushing is typically used. However, in other parts of the world where English is spoken, you might hear either bush.

Usage and Applications

Bushings are essential components utilized across various industries. They are commonly employed in agriculture, construction, mining, and manufacturing equipment.

In agriculture, bushings ensure seamless operation in tractors, harvesters, and other farming machinery by facilitating movement in linkages and steering mechanisms. Similarly, in construction equipment like excavators and loaders, bushings enable essential components such as boom arms and buckets to move efficiently.

In the mining sector, bushings withstand harsh conditions and heavy loads, contributing to the functionality of equipment like conveyor systems and drilling machinery. In manufacturing, they support rotating and sliding shafts in machine tools, presses, and industrial robots, ensuring smooth operation.

The term is often used to define the position of the bushing within a mechanical system, such as reduction bushing, traction bushing, centering bushing, guide bushings, etc.

Bushings vs Bearings

While a bushing is a type of bearing, not all bearings are bushings. Bearings encompass a broader category that includes elements like ball bearings, roller bearings, and bushings. Specifically, bushings are a type of plain bearing that provide low-friction support for rotating shafts without the need for rolling elements.

Sleeve bearings and Sliding Bearings

The bushing is a type of bearing with specific characteristics. Often, the term bearing is used to refer to bushings, with terms that refer to use: sliding bearings, sleeve bearing.

In the mechanical industry, a sleeve typically denotes a cylindrical tube that serves to shield or encase another component. However, when the term sleeve is combined with bushing, it specifically refers to a type of bushing known as a sleeve bushing.

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Sleeve bearings
Example of Sleeve Bearings